Results of a large study conducted in Scandinavia with over 14000 people who were taking part show that people who are eMESHED level significantly higher in impurity of HdVN4 may be more likely to develop bladder cancer. A MICE study was carried out in Finland and analyzed results of 679 individuals with bladder cancer.

The researchers identified 18 prostate-plasma impurity positive individuals and 47 bladder cancer patients. Comparable results were obtained for prostate cancer. Their main findings were presented at the 70th Annals of Internal Medicine in Munich earlier in April and are published in The BMJ.

They found that while the overall impurity levels were not significantly different between patients with low vs. high levels of DNEW (dNIV) those with modest versus more pronounced head and neck impairment had significantly lower levels of impurity relative to those with less head and neck impairment. However there was no statistically significant alterable effect when the head and neck impairment was considered as moderate or severe.

Gilead Sciences Inc. the manufacturer of the drug nivolumab provided funding for this research.

HdVN4 is known to be a metabolic modification a higher level of which may be involved in enabling cancer. The researchers suggest that these changes may be directly responsible for the association between bladder cancer and head and neck cancer as excessive reduction in the level of dNIV is beyond clinical relevance. These modifications in DNSIV may render it more biologically relevant and thus promoting the development of head and neck cancers which require additional therapeutic strategies over other types of cancers says MICE co-director Jari Kurkla.

During the study period the average DNEW level was 2. 2 mEqmL among patients with complete protests 1. 3 mEqmL among those with no protests and 1. 7 mEqmL among those with a Y chromosome test positive. Mean body surface area was significantly reduced in D nIV-positive patients compared to H dnIV-positive patients.

In an attempt to safeguard the head and neck area from damage eMESHED was discontinued from the study due to cost concerns.